Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology Chicago, USA.

Day 2 :

  • Keynote Symposium
Location: Versailles - B

Session Introduction

Heres-Pulido M E

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico

Title: The Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster
Speaker
Biography:

Heres-Pulido M E is full time Professor in UNAM-Iztacala, biology’s career and Master´s degree. She has published three articles in proceedings of international conferences, and 17 refereed journal articles, 9 of which are indexed. She has published academic material such assix books, three interactive CDs; is co-author of two manuals and have five chapters in specialized publications. She became member of the Genetics Mexican Society and the President in 2009-2011. She was founding member of the Ecological Training Centre Omeyocan AC (1991-2003) and President from 2001 to 2003. She was accredited in 2008-2010 in the field of bioethics by the Mexican National Academy of Bioethics AC and is a member of the Bioethics Committee of UNAM FESI. She began her career in the National Nuclear Energy Commission of 1970-1975 where she collaborated in human genetic diagnoses and is a Professor at UNAM-Iztacala from 1976 to date, where she was especially dedicated in teaching Genetics, Cell Biology and Ethics, also has had five academic-administrative positions. Currently she is Head of the Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology from the Biology Career. She received the "Juan Pablos" award from the National Association of Mexican Editorial Industry in 1995.

Abstract:

The Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) was developed by Ulrich Graf (1984) and collaborators from the ETH, Zurich. Commonly known as the wing spot test, this genotoxic test uses the eukaryotic model Drosophila melanogaster. Virgin females from the flare and Oregon-flare strains are mated to mwh males, to carry out the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses, with basal and high cytochromes P450 (Cyp450s) levels, respectively. Based on the loss of heterozygosity, DNA damage can be expressed by point mutation, recombination, deletion and aneuploidy. Third instar larvae are chronically fed with moistened media with test solutions for treatments or co-treatments until imago emergence. Imagos are collected and stored in 70% EtOH. Clones of markers, named spots, are scored unbiased under the microscope at 40x, in the dorsal and ventral adult wing’s layers. Each fly has a total of ~50,000 cells in each pair of wings, so reviewing about 60 individuals per treatment reaches a number close to ~3 million cells. Th e frequency of small, large or twin spots and the total spots frequency per treatment are compared pair-wise with controls or inversely, using the SMART computer soft ware by Frei and Würgler (1988) based on the Kastenbaum–Bowman test (p<0.05). In order to avoid false positive or negative results the Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon U-test (a=b=0.05, one sided) is used. The alteration of cell division in the larvae wings´ imaginal discs cells caused, are pair-wise compared with the controls mwh accumulated distribution clones using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test according to Graf et al. (1984). In the Genetic Toxicology Laboratory of FES Iztacala-UNAM we have evaluated the triasulfuron herbicide; natural products or compounds such as broccoli, vitamin C, sulforaphane, caffeic acid, verbascoside and zaeralenone; also ethanol, acetone, hydrogen peroxide, lead acetate, lead nitrate and DMSO; some drugs as tamoxifen, metronidazole and new tripanocides synthesized by chemists at the UNAM.

  • Symposium by Dr. Cinzia Forni, Dr. Hemant Misra and Dr. S.S. Hundal
    Title: “Stress response in living organisms exposed to pollutants”
Location: Versailles - B

Session Introduction

Cinzia Forni

University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy

Title: How plants cope with abiotic stress

Time : 09:45-10:00

Speaker
Biography:

Cinzia Forni is Professor of Botany and Group Leader of the Laboratory of Botany and Phytotechnologies of the Department of Biology at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Her expertise is dealing with effects of abiotic and biotic stresses in plants and secondary metabolites production. She has published 63 papers in reputed journals and serving as referee in different journals. Current research projects are: a) phytoremediation; b) study on salt tolerant species; c) study on the production of fl avonoids in crops and determination of their antitumor activity d) germplasm preservation.

Abstract:

Life of plants can be affected by abiotic stress, resulting from nonliving factors, such as extreme temperatures, drought, salinity and pollutants. Plants have to cope with the detrimental effects of these stresses that impact upon their reproduction and productivity, and, hence, agriculture and biodiversity. In plant kingdom a commonly accepted stress concept is provided by the biomedical sciences and it is the ‘General Adaptation Syndrome’ (GAS) of the endocrinologist Hans Selye (1936). When a threat or stressor is identified or realized, a state of ‘alarm’ is created which elicits a rapid and appropriate response, that represents the key to survival for the organism. However, a plant’s response to stress will vary according to increasing duration and severity of stress. The balance between tolerance and sensitivity may determine whether a stress factor has a positive or negative effect. The ‘building blocks’ of the species tolerance are: protection, repair, acclimation and adaptation. They are depending on the complex molecular response mainly based on the modulation of transcriptional activity of stress-related genes. Mechanisms involved in plant stress response will be considered and discussed together with possible biotechnological applications.

Hemant Misra

Prolong Pharmaceuticals, USA

Title: Stress response in living organism and laboratory animals to pollutants

Time : 10:00-10:15

Speaker
Biography:

Hemant Misra received his PhD from Lucknow University in Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry and has published over 55 articles and a patent. He is VP Clinical Development for Prolong Pharmaceuticals. He has over 30 years of biopharmaceutical development, global clinical study management and corporate development experience. He has managed drug development, CGMP manufacturing, CTM, quality systems and multiple global clinical trials.

Abstract:

Pollutants are contaminants introduced into the environment that may have impact on the environment and the organisms within that environment. These pollutants may come from several sources and can contaminate land, water, and air. Some pollutants dissipate or are converted to non-toxic products quickly whereas other pollutants persist and accumulate through the food chain as larger organisms consume smaller organisms. Th e organisms living within those environments are exposed to the pollutants primarily by inhalation, dermal exposure, or ingestion of the pollutants. Th e types of pollutants include pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc.), metals, solvents and vapors, and radioactive materials. Organisms have mechanisms for detoxifying or eliminating pollutants, but these mechanisms may be stressed or overwhelmed resulting in toxicity to the organism. Th e route and level of exposure can have an impact on both the magnitude and target of toxicity. Th ere are typically target organs/tissues/molecular components that can be identified, and the resulting signs of toxicity can be correlated to the target of the pollutant within the organism. Pollutants can induce stress to an organism at several levels and these signs of stress can manifest in several ways including changes to behavior, biological systems, and at the molecular level. Some of the relevant targets that could lead to these changes involve the central nervous system (CNS) at the systems level and oxidative stress at the molecular level. Pollutants may inhibit or excite receptors, induce degeneration, or be metabolized to reactive molecules. Th ere are a number of complicating factors which influence the type of stress or toxicity that will occur. These factors include the presence of co-pollutants, species, lifestyle choices, physical health, age, gender, and ethnicity. Th e source for our observations includes epidemiological studies, field/clinical studies, and invitro/invivo lab studies. Rodents have been used extensively as animal models for these studies, but many times the data does not translate directly to other species. It is important to remember that pollutants can have an effect on how organisms respond to stress and that stress can also affect the response of organisms to pollutants.

S S Hundal

Punjab Agricultural University, India

Title: Environmental pollution, stress molecules and wildlife health

Time : 10:15-10:30

Speaker
Biography:

S S Hundal, Professor of Zoology, completed his PhD from the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. He has a distinguished career in teaching, research and outreach activities. His main research interests are effect of environmental contaminants on animal physiology and on bioconversion of agricultural wastes. He has supervised 9 MSc and 2 PhD students. He has published more than 50 research papers; attended as resource person and invited speaker at more than 35 national and international conferences and seminars. He is Reviewer for four international journals and serving on the Editorial Board of two journals.

Abstract:

The concept of stress as a change in the environment that results in an internal physiological response in living organisms has been recognized and hypothesized to involve important adaptive changes throughout an organism that are necessary to restore homeostasis. Different stressful conditions produce a similar stress response, and the ability of organisms to adapt to stress is regulated by the integration of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems, ultimately played out at the level of cells and molecules. Oxidative stress occurs when highly reactive molecules formed by exposure to toxic agents, including the sun’s ultraviolet rays, background ionizing radiation, chemicals in food and the environment, overwhelm the cell’s natural defenses against their attack. Free radicals attack other molecules and form molecules that are foreign to cellular machinery, accumulate and eventually impair function by slowing down physiological processes. DNA damage in the form of mutations or genomic instability result from genotoxic stress. Th e different types of pollutants released to environment by the human activity have been classified in five categories: inorganic and organic pollutants, organo-metallic compounds, radioactive isotopes and gases. These toxic elements enter different ecosystems from varied ways-industrial wastes, human disposal, toxic chemicals, sewages, radio nuclides, organic pollutants, air and trafficked pollutants-and their effects remain for a long period of time. Recent ecological studies have shown that oxidative status could have a significant impact on fitness components in wild animals, reflect the environmental conditions that animals experience, and can also predict their chances of reproduction and survival in the future in their natural habitat. Th e individual and population variations in oxidative status and the emphasis of the measurement of markers of oxidative status in conservation programmes, may help investigators with the interpretation of their results and encourage conservation physiologists to use them in order to address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and enhance the success of conservation programmes and wildlife management.

Break: Coffee Break 10:30-10:50 @ Versailles Foyer
  • Track 6: Application of Stem Cells in Toxicology
    Track 7: Genetic Toxicology
Location: Versailles - B
Speaker

Chair

Pavel Vodicka

Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Republic

Speaker

Co-Chair

Soon-Ha Kim

LG Life Sciences, Ltd., Korea

Session Introduction

Siamak Haghdoost

Stockholm University, Sweden

Title: Mechanism of non-DNA targeted mutagenesis: The role of intra cellular nucleotide pool

Time : 10:50-11:10

Speaker
Biography:

Siamak Haghdoost is Associate Professor of radiation biology and PhD in genetic toxicology, working at the Department of Molecular Bioscience, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, since January 2006. He has published 35 peer reviwed artiles in the international journals. He has been leading the work in the Laboratory of Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Stockholm University, Sweden. His research focuses on the role of nucleotide pool modifications and nucleotide pool sanitization enzyme in mutagenecity and sensitivity to radiation.

Abstract:

Cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced either endogenously or exogenously by environmental factors and drugs. It is well known that ionizing radiation as well as UV radiation is amongst the exogenous agents producing ROS. While ionizing radiation ionizes intracellular water molecules leading to the formation of ROS, UVA radiation excites photosensitizers leading to the formation of ROS. ROS in turn exerts its effect by modifying DNA base in the DNA and nucleotide pool (dNTP), which may lead to mutations during replication. Oxidatively modified DNA bases will be repaired mainly by base excision repair pathway. ROS can modify dNTP. The modified dNTP can be incorporated into the DNA during replication and give rise to mutation. The dominant forms of ROS induced dNTP modification include 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-dATP. Different types of mutations can arise depending on which dNTP has been modified in the nucleotide pool and incorporated in to the DNA. The cells are equipped with the nucleotide pool sanitization enzymes (ex. hMTH1) to avoid incorporation of modified dNTP into the DNA. Mutant frequency, mutational spectra, clonogenic survival, the level of micronuclei and the levels of 8-oxo-dG in cytoplasm and in the cell culture medium in TK6 cells with normal as well as with low level of hMTH1 in order to understand the mutagenic effect of ROS-induced dNTP modifications were studied. The mutagenic role of nucleotide pool in the cells exposed to UV (UVA, UVB and UVC) and gamma radiation will be discussed.

Speaker
Biography:

Soon Ha Kim, PhD, is the Director of “NecroX Program” in LG Life Sciences in Korea. He is responsible for developing NecroX-7, a novel class of mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger, as a therapeutic candidate for the clinical indications including myocardial infarction (MI) under clinical phase 2 in Korea. Since 2006, he is building an open innovation networks with academic and biotech partners. He completed his PhD from Seoul National University in 1998 and conducted Postdoctoral research at The Scripps Research Institute from 1999 to 2004 in USA. His industry career started as a biologist leading drug discovery projects. He worked as a Principal Investigator in the Drug Discovery Unit, R&D Park, LG Life Sciences for 10 years. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Necrosis is tremendously important in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases. In the case of necrosis, the organelles that need protection are the mitochondria, which sustain considerably more advantage than in apoptosis. In the last decade, mitochondria have provided a vast area of research for the pharmacologist, with potential targets for drug action. A novel class of mitochondria-targeted ROS scavengers, NecroX series (Archives of Pharmacal Research, 2010), was identified and verified the notion that inhibition of mitochondrial defects is critical for necrotic cell viability. It was demonstrated that blockade of mitochondrial ROS generation with NecroX-7 treatment inhibits various types of in vitro & in vivo necrotic cell death against oxidative stress as well as ischemia/reperfusion injury accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) & mPT pore opening, and intracellular cytosolic & mitochondrial calcium overload, which are key features of necrotic pathophysiology. The clinical phase 1 trial of NecroX-7 was completed last year and the phase 2 study for myocardial infarction was initiated in Korea in 2014, which will be presented and discussed. These findings suggest that mitochondrial ROS play a key role in necrotic cell death, and identify a previously undescribed necrotic cell-death pathway as well as offer NecroX-7 as a novel therapeutic candidate for IR injury with an extended window for necrosis-related human pathologies.

Speaker
Biography:

G Wultsch studied Medicine at Medical University of Graz. He has completed his PhD at the age of 25 years from Graz Medical University and conducted Postdoctoral studies as well in the Medical University of Graz Medical University of Graz. He is the Chief Medical Officer of the Occupational Medical Center in Graz and the Head of the occupational medicine branch of the Austrian medical chamber. His work combines the control of the health status of the employees in various industries as well as the function as a consultant to various chambers. The results were published in 7 articles in reputed journals (one is accepted for publication in Mutat Res – Reviews, and the results of 2 investigations are in preparation).

Abstract:

Exfoliated cells can be collected with non-invasive methods from different organs. It is possible to analyze nuclear aberrations which provide information about genotoxic and acute cytotoxic effects caused by exposures. Genotoxic effects lead to formation of micronuclei (MNi), nuclear buds and binucleates while acute cytotoxic effects lead to formation of pyknosis, condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. Recently, a standardized protocol was developed for experiments with buccal cells and the scoring criteria can be also used for nasal cells. Several studies were conducted in which the impact of life-style exposures was investigated in these cells. Clear-cut positive effects were detected in mouth cells of heavy smokers. Furthermore, the finding indicates that MNi formation increases with exposure to tar while unexpectedly an inverse association with nicotine uptake was observed. Also khat and betel chewing led to increased MNi rates in buccal cells while coca chewing caused a protective effect. In total ca. 80 occupational studies were conducted so far with exfoliated nasal and buccal cells. Results of investigation in Austria show that significant MNi induction is detectable in nasal but not in buccal cells of welders, while in wood workers only a baseline effect was detected in both cell types. Consistently negative results were obtained in electroplaters and in workers which were exposed to chicken manure. However, evidence of acute cytotoxic effects was observed in all aforementioned studies. Overall, the findings indicate that cytome assays with exfoliated cells are a valuable tool to detect heath risks caused by exposure to genotoxins.

Heres-Pulido M E

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico

Title: Genotoxicity evaluation of zaeralenone with the wing spot test in Drosophila melanogaster

Time : 11:50-12:10

Speaker
Biography:

Heres-Pulido M E is full time professor in UNAM-Iztacala, Biology’s career and master´s degree.She has published three articles in Proceedings of International Conferences, and 17 refereed journal articles, 9 of which are indexed. She has published academic material such assix books, three interactive CDs; is co-author of two manuals and have five chapters in specialized publications. She has supervised 34 bachelor theses and 11 from master degree. Member of the Genetics Mexican Society and its President on 2009-2011. She was founding member of the Ecological Training Centre Omeyocan AC (1991-2003) and President from it from 2001 to 2003. She was accredited in 2008-2010 in the field of bioethics by the Mexican National Academy of Bioethics AC and is a member of the Bioethics Committee of UNAM FESI. Began his career in the National Nuclear Energy Commission of 1970-1975 where she collaborated in human genetic diagnoses and is a professor at UNAM-Iztacala from 1976 to date, where she was especially dedicated in teaching Genetics, Cell Biology and Ethics, also has had five academic-administrative positions. Currently she is head of the Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology from the Biology Career. She has four research visits, three of them international. She received the "Juan Pablos" award from the National Association of Mexican Editorial Industry in 1995. In 2009 and 2010 the Mexican Institute of Science and Technology, Government of the Federal District, elected the “Storage and flow of genetic information" editorial products, which she was responsible, as oneof the first places in the two Digital Educational Materials and Resources for the City contests.

Abstract:

Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by genus Fusarium that contaminates stored cereals and had been reported as genotoxic in vertebrates, because it produces micronucleus, chromosome aberrations, DNA strand breaks and DNA adducts. We performed genotoxicity evaluation of ZEN concentration’s, under and above 256 M [LC<25], with the standard (ST) and the high bioactivation (HB) crosses of the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of Drosophila melanogaster. Results are analyzed taking in account that those crosses differ in Cyp450s expression, regulated and high, respectively, and that this diptera has adERR orphan receptor with no known naturally occurring ligand.

Osama M Al-Quteimat

King Abdullah Medical City, Saudi Arabia

Title: Phenytoin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

Time : 12:10-12:30

Speaker
Biography:

Osama M Al-Quteimat has completed his Master degree in clinical pharmacy at the age of 26 years from University of Jordan. He is a board-certified oncology pharmacist working as clinical pharmacist in King Abdullah Medical City, a leading healthcare institution providing high-quality tertiary and quaternary healthcare, education and research in Saudi Arabia-Makkah. His main interests include pharmaceutical care, oncology pharmacy and patient education. He has published many papers in the field of clinical pharmacy in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) is a rare, life threatening skin reaction that is usually drug-induced. Anti-convulsants such as phenytoin, carbamazepine and phenobarbital and some antibiotics such as co-trimoxazole, quinolones and cephalosporins have been identified as common causes of drug-induced TEN. TEN has many serious complications including dehydration, increased energy expenditure and local or systemic infections. Many studies and case reports were published in the literature supporting the association between phenytoin and the development of TEN. Also many other factors can put the patient at higher risk for developing TEN while on phenytoin those include advanced age, malignancy and radiation exposure. More than one mechanism has been proposed to explain TEN pathophysiology. Hypersensitivity due to toxic metabolites of involved drugs is one theory. Genetic basis for drug-induced TEN has been proposed where there is inherited or acquired deficiency in phase 2 detoxification enzymes. Few studies have also indicated an association between HLA*1502 and phenytoin induced TEN. Family history of hypersensitivity reactions to medications should be documented and discussed with the patients. TEN’s treatment requires multidisciplinary approach to identify and withdraw the causative agent, controlling fluid and temperature homeostasis, preventing multi-organ damage, and treating systemic complications. Supportive therapy is the main strategy of treatment. Phenytoin-induced TEN carries a high mortality and morbidity rate, so accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment is essential to treat and prevent complications. It’s vital to make sure that the “right” patient is taking the “right” dose of the “right” medication. Medications history documentation with special drug allergy card indicating any history of drug reaction is recommended.

  • Track 8: Risk Assessment of Chemicals in Food
    Track 9: Environmental and Occupational Health
    Track 10: Industrial and Metallic Toxicology
Location: Versailles - B
Speaker

Chair

Cinzia Forni

University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy

Speaker

Co-Chair

S S Hundal

Punjab Agricultural University, India

Session Introduction

Cinzia Forni

University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy

Title: Pollutants toxicity towards aquatic macrophytes

Time : 12:30-12:50

Speaker
Biography:

Cinzia Forni is Professor of Botany and Group Leader of the Laboratory of Botany and Phytotechnologies of the Department of Biology at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Her expertise is dealing with effects of abiotic and biotic stresses in plants and secondary metabolites production. She has published 63 papers in reputed journals and serving as referee in different journals. Current research projects are: a) phytoremediation; b) study on salt tolerant species; c) study on the production of flavonoids in crops and determination of their antitumor activity d) germplasm preservation.

Abstract:

The indiscriminate discharge of pollutants, such as heavy metals, surfactants and drugs, generated by anthropogenic activities is causing a tremendous hazard to both aquatic and terrestrial habitats and to human health. Therefore in recent years, the interest towards the toxic effects of these molecules on living organisms has increased. Plants have to cope with the detrimental effects of pollutants, e.g., typical symptoms of their toxicity are decrease of growth rate and chlorophylls, root detachment and leaf chlorosis and necrosis. The ability of plants to survive depends on the metabolic responsiveness of detoxification mechanisms. In fact, consequence to the toxicity is the elicitation of stress response that involved changes in the activity of enzymes, such as peroxidases, as well as enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway, which is responsible for the synthesis of a diverse array of phenolic metabolites. These compounds are often induced by stress and serve specific roles in plant protection as well as structural components of the cell wall. The ability of plants to withstand the toxicity and accumulate pollutants is the base of environmental phytotechnologies, since numerous species can be an interesting tool for remediation of contaminated soils and waters. The mechanisms of plant defence against pollutant toxicity have been studied in floating macrophyte-based model systems. The results obtained will be discussed together with the future perspective of phytoremediation of polluted waters.

Speaker
Biography:

Ü Ündeğer Bucurgat has completed her PhD in 2001 from Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology (Turkey). She is currently working in the same department as Professor. She studied in Albert Szent Györgyi University, Hungary in 1998 as Researcher during her doctorate. She studied in Zurich University in 2002 and Dortmund University in 2004 as Post doctorate researcher. She has 35 article indexed in Science Citation Index and 629 citations for her publications.

Abstract:

Herbicides are some of the compounds most frequently released into the environment because of their widespread use in agriculture. Despite the beneficial effects associated with the use of herbicides, many of these chemicals may pose potential hazards to humans and to nature. The widespread use of herbicides for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests has led to anxiety about the possible hazards to public health. Dinitroaniline herbicides are inhibits of growth and cell division and selectively controls weeds. They are used to control broadleaf weeds and grassy weed species in cereals, onions, garlic, corn, rice, potatoes, tobacco, and tomatoes. Owing to their widely agricultural use, they are contaminates soil and water. In addition, they are used on non-agricultural areas and on residential lawns, and ornamentals. But there is scanty and contradictory knowledge about their endocrine disruptor effects. In this study, endocrine disrupting potential of the herbicide pendimethalin was investigated in vivo on the uterotrophic response and on the expression of estrogen-regulated genes examined by quantitative real-time RT PCR. Receptor binding characteristics of pendimethalin were analyzed by an in silico method. Pendimethalin (150, 225, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage to immature female rats for 3 days, with ethinylestradiol (0.001 mg/kg/day) as positive control. Pendimethalin caused a small but significant increase in absolute uterine weight at and above 300 mg/kg/day and in relative uterine weight at 600 mg/kg/day. Estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha mRNA levels were not affected, whereas ER-beta mRNA was up-regulated at the highest dose. Progesterone receptor mRNA level was not significantly changed, while insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA was reduced, significantly at 225 mg/kg/day to 65% of control. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA showed a marked down-regulation at doses of 225 mg/kg/day and above. The expression pattern differed from that of ethinylestradiol. In silico analysis revealed potential binding of pendimethalin to ER-beta and AR, but virtually no binding to ER-alpha. These data demonstrate that pendimethalin exhibits estrogenic activity also in vivo. However, its uterotrophic effect, which is an ER-alpha-mediated response, is very small, and it appears that in vivo actions should rather be sought in ER-beta-regulated functions.

Break: 13:10-15:10 Poster Presentations @ Versailles Foyer
Lunch Break 13:30-14:10 @ Monaco Grand Ballroom

Frederic J Deschamps

University Hospital of Reims, France

Title: A new challenge: Assessment of metal prothesis intoxication

Time : 15:10-15:30

Speaker
Biography:

Frederic J. Deschamps, is Medical doctor (Lille- France University in 1990) He is PhD in Occupational Toxicology for 1993. He was nominated professor of Medicine in 2002. He has improved for the last 20 years the Department of Occupational Diseases of the University Hospital of Reims (Champagne County). He manages for 1995 the Regional Institute of Occupational Health. He belongs to the French National University College of Occupational Researches and Practionners. He has focused his work an occupational infectious diseases and health effects of low doses toxics with long term exposure.

Abstract:

Cobalt intoxication has become more frequent due to the wide use of Metal Cobalt Hip Implants (MCHI). Health risks that are related to chronically elevated blood to cobalt concentration induced by a normal wear and corrosion of the MCHI. Only a few patients have systemic symptoms of poisoning. Toxic blood cobalt concentration may be accompanied by hypothyroidism, polyneuropathy, impairment of cranial nerves and cardiomyopathy. A 60 years old woman underwent total hip prothesis containing cobalt, three years ago. She had no symptoms, but a blood cobalt routine assessment shows an increase of metal level to 3.2 µg/l (population non exposed <0.6 µg/l). Three months later result obtained was 4.64 µg/l. During the next quarter the leved reached to 8.29 µg/l. It is known that cobalt level assessment concerning a population of patients with cobalt MCHI is around 7 µg/l. The treatment could consist of removal of the prothesis to avoid cobalt poisoning, in relationship with deterioration of the metal femoral head by overlooked particles of the head. It seems important to know that the metal particles spread by lymphatic circulation may continue to release ions ever though the source of wear had been removed. Consequently it can be discussed in patients with normal kidney function to add chelation therapy.

Speaker
Biography:

Elsayed A M Abdallah is Prof. of Pesticide Chemistry & Toxicology in the Dept. of Chemistry and Technology of Pesticide Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt. He completed his Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Biological Chemistry, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Maryland (1981-1984). He was a Visiting Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore (1988-1990). He also did Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore (1990-1991). He has a total of 79 original research articles, some of which have been published in first rate USA scientific journals while the rest are published in Egypt.

Abstract:

In vivo effects of abamectin, emamectin benzoate and methomyl on GABAergic neurons were investigated against the activities of Eobania vermiculata brown garden snail (BGS) and Theba pisana white garden snail (WGS) glutamate decaboxylase (GAD). The GAD activity was evaluated by measuring the formed gamma aminobutyric acid after derivatization to phenylthio carbamoyl GABA (PTC-GABA) using HPLC with UV absorbance detection 245 nm. The HPLC of standards PTC-GABA and PTC-Glutamic had retention times 3.86 and 10.012, respectively. The results revealed that: A- Same type of response was noticed between both types of the snails BGS and WGS. While methomyl clearly inhibited GAD activity, abamectin and emamectin benzoate stimulated markedly the GAD activity in both types of the used land snails. B- The inhibitory effect of methomyl was dose dependent manner. That the activity of GAD enzyme increased by decreasing the dose treatments in both types of snails. However, the inhibition of GAD activity was more pronounced with BGS than WGS. C- Abamectin and emamectin benzoate induced a significant GAD stimulatory effect for both type of snails BGS and WGS. D- Abamectin interaction with GAD activity was higher than emamectin benzoate especially in the case of WGS when the stimulatory effect on GAD activity was less than BGS. E- The stimulatory effect decreased by time, the lowest stimulation obtained for BGS was at 72 hr with the least concentration used 1/10 of LD50. F- Specific activity value of GAD-BGS was higher than the value of GAD-WGS indicating more participation of GABAergic system of Eobania vermiculata compared with Theba pisana in this respect. G- These findings could illustrate how abamectin and emamectin benzoate induces the level of GABA neurotransmitter in E. vemiculata and T. pisana land snails, as it activates the biosynthesis of GABA and inhibit its degradation.

Speaker
Biography:

Syamantak Mani Tripathi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Chhattisharh Kamdhenu Vishwavidalya, Durg-491001 (Chhattisgarh) India. He has over six years experience with hand-on applications including teams of researchers and technicians in the Pharmacology & Toxicology and Biotechnology division. His training and experience also includes applied animal investigation skills as a research scholar in the field of pesticide induced immunotoxicology and safety pharmacology studies. He has worked in multiple successful research projects funded by Indian Council of Agricultural Research and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, supporting clinical development and leading to strong regulatory submissions for pesticides uses in agriculture. His research program is focused on the study of immune response to pesticide and xenobiotics in avian model. He received his Bachelor’s in Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry from Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur (MP), India; Master’s of Veterinary Pharmacology from Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat), India and his Ph.D. in Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology from the Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University at Jabalpur (MP), India. His academic work was focused on “Immuno-genotoxicity of organophosphorous insecticide ‘acephate’ in white leghorn birds”. His work contributes towards understanding the molecular mechanism of acephate toxicity in avian model; studying interleukin gene(s) associated with immunity and development of test series to study immunotoxicity. Memberships he has include the Indian Society of Toxicology, Indian Society of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Abstract:

Acephate, widely used insecticide in agriculture, is a common environmental contaminant. Although health effects of the acephate are documented, however developmental immunotoxic studies are scanty and need more attention. The present study was undertaken in day-old white leghorn chicks to assess immunotoxicity for subchronic exposure to acephate. The chicks were divided into five groups. Groups C1 and C2 served as plain control and vehicle control respectively. Chicks of groups T1, T2 and T3 were administered acephate suspended in groundnut oil at 21.3 mg/kg, 28.4 mg/kg and 42.6 mg/kg respectively orally for up to 60 days. All the chicks were vaccinated with Ranikhet disease virus (F-strain; RD-F) on days 1 and 30. During the course of study and at term, parameters of cellular and humoral immunity were determined. The live body weight gain, absolute and the relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, antibody response to RDF and delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene or PHA-P were significantly reduced in the medium and extremely toxic treatment groups. The ability of lymphocytes proliferation in response to antigen RD-F and mitogen Con A was also significantly suppressed following subchronic exposure to acephate. Furthermore, histopathologically, bursa and spleen showed mild depletion of lymphocytes. It was concluded that subchronic acephate exposure at low concentrations may affect immune responses in avian species. Therefore, immunotoxicological effects should be considered when assessing the acephate risk to human and animal health.

Break: Coffee Break 16:10-16:30 @ Versailles Foyer

S S Hundal

Punjab Agricultural University, India

Title: Environmental contaminants and reproductive abnormalities–A perspective

Time : 16:30-16:50

Speaker
Biography:

S.S. Hundal, Professor of Zoology, completed his Ph.D. from the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. He has a distinguished career in teaching, research and outreach activities. His main research interests are Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Animal Physiology and on bioconversion of agricultural wastes. He has supervised 9 M.Sc. and 2 Ph.D. students. He has published more than 50 research papers; attended as Resource person and Invited Speaker at more the 35 National and International Conferences and Seminars. He is Reviewer for four International Journals and serving on the Editorial board of Two Journals.

Abstract:

Punjab (lat. 29deg 32’ – 32 deg 32’N; long. 73 deg 55’ – 76deg 50’E) in India has been referred to as ‘food bowl’ of the country and was a pioneer in ushering in the Green Revolution and strengthening food security. The South West region of Punjab has become a major area of concern due to the presence of arsenic and pesticide cocktail in the water and soil. Our studies from the region using fish an indicator from natural sites have revealed alterations in liver and kidney histology as well as deposition of metal residue in fish muscle. Laboratory based experiments on Wistar female rats using sub chronic effect of sodium arsenite for up to 60 days has revealed the decrease in anti oxidative potential of the lungs, spleen and brain, making them susceptible to various diseases due to generation of oxidative stress. Insecticides disrupt ovarian function which greatly affects women’s reproductive and endocrine health. Our survey work in 17 villages of the region endemic to such disorders backed with experimental work has led to some pointers of the initiation of cancer related symptoms even in sub chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos which causes oxidative stress. The female population showed a prevalence of breast cancer (77%) among the age group of 50-54 years of age. Increase in ovarian and uterus epithelial surface, ductal thickness and in branches, alveoli and terminal buds in mammary glands has been as a result of sub chronic exposure of chlorpyrifos. Thus exposure to insecticides, occupational or otherwise, may be a significant contributing factor to the high cancer incidence in this region. Trapped small rodents from the study area indicated chromosomal aberration in somatic cells but teratogenic effects were, however, not reported. A comprehensive summary of arsenic and chlorpyrifos, their occupational exposure and associated reproductive dysfunctions in the region has been presented in the female of the species. It is possible that low-level metal and insecticide exposure contributes much more towards the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. It will go a long way in developing new approaches for determining the safety of pesticides and the need for innovative regulatory policy to protect human and environmental health.

Sarathchandra Ghadevaru

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, India

Title: Surveillance of chloramphenicol residues in milk, eggs and chicken meat by LCMSMS

Time : 16:50-17:10

Speaker
Biography:

Sarathchandra Ghadevaru is the Professor & Head, Pharmacovigilance Laboratory for Animal Feed and Food Safety in the Directorate of Centre for Animal Health Studies, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai-51. He is a Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicologist having 25 years of experience in the field of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. He obtained Ph.D., (Environmental Toxicology), University of Madras in 1997. His area of specialization is Veterinary Diagnostic and Regulatory Toxicology. His doctoral programme elicited the toxicodynamics/ mode of action and antidotes to combat one of the common suicidal and homicidal phytotoxin (Cleistanthus collinus (oduvan thalai: Tamil) very frequently encountered in malicious poisoning of cattle. The growing resonance in reduction of animals for toxicity evaluation (alternatives to animal toxicity testing), the findings of the phytotoxin were evaluated in two invitro system namely vero cell line and chick embryo as suitable model for alternative to animal toxicity. His mission is to create awareness to livestock farmer regarding residue free livestock products towards Global Food Security

Abstract:

Chloramphenicol has been banned for use in all food-producing animals by the European Union (EU), and Most of the developed countries.. The EU recently set a minimum required performance limit (mrpl) for chloramphenicol determination at 0.3 μg/kg (ppb) in all foods of animal origin. The growing food safety concerns call for intensive surveillance of chloramphenicol in food products. The objective of the study was to assess whether milk, eggs and chicken meat produced by the livestock farmers in TamilNadu state of India were contaminated with chloramphenicol residues. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MSMS) method was employed for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in milk, eggs, chicken muscle and liver, and kidney. CAP was extracted from the samples with acetonitrile and defatted with hexane. The acetonitrile extracts were then evaporated, and residues reconstituted in 10mM ammonium acetate--acetonitrile mobile phase and injected into the LC system, and detection was by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method studied was sensitive enough to detect and quantify 0.050 ug/kg (ppb) chloramphenicol for screening purposes, much lower than the Minimum Required Performance Limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg imposed by European Commission's regulation. The study revealed that most of the samples were in compliance with MRL and growing awareness amongst farmers to avoid banned antibiotic CAP.

Speaker
Biography:

Udu Ama Ibiam obtained his B.Sc and M.Sc degrees from the Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria in 1997 and 2001, respectively. He completed his Ph.D degree in Environmental Toxicology in 2004 at the School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, England. He was a DBT_TWAS-Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the School of Neurosciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India, from 2007-2008, majoring in Neurotoxicology. Udu is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Biochemistry of Ebonyi State University, a Senate Member, a Head of Department of Biochemistry between 2005-2007, and 2008-2011, and currently the Dean of Faculty of Biological Sciences of Ebonyi State University. In addition, he has held various responsible positions in the university and has been a member of many committees over the years. Udu has many international and national journal articles and books to his credit. He is a member of many professional academic organizations including Nigerian Society of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Cassava Cyanide Disease Network (CCDN), Australia, to mention but a few. Dr Udu is happily married with four children.

Abstract:

Psychotria microphylla (Oye leaf, Igbo) is one of the common herbs used to harvest fish from rivers and streams by many villages in South-East Nigeria and not much, if any, has been reported on the toxicity of this plant. The acute toxicity studies of the leaf powder of Psychotria microphylla on Clarias gariepinus was carried out in a semi-static bioassay to determine the median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 96 h of exposure. Six graded concentrations of 0, 2.50, 3.125, 4.375, 6.25, and 12.50 mg/l of the leaf powder were applied to C. gariepinus juveniles (mean weight: 180 g and length 25 cm) in plastic containers. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values (with 95 % confidence limits) estimated by probit analysis were 6.06 (5.369-7.269), 4.995(4.238-6.118), 3.827(3.083-4.639) and 3.259(2.481-3.915) mgl-1, respectively. Toxicity characteristics during exposure included discolouration, gulping for air, erratic swimming, loss of reflexes, slow opercular movement and ultimately settling at the bottom motionless just before death. GC-MS analysis of crude hexane extract of the leaf revealed 12 compounds including the following: E-9-Octadecanoic acid; Z,Z-3,15-Octadecadien-1-ol acetate; Cyclohexanol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-, acetate; and n-Hexadecanoic acid, while the methanol extract (GC-MS analysis) revealed the following major compounds Trans-octadec-9-enoic acid; Octadecanoic (Stearic acid); n-Hexadecanoic acid; Octamethyl-octadecahydro-2H-picen-3-one; and Glycerol,13-dipalmitate. Of particular interest is octadecanoic acid which has been reported to induce lung damage.

Speaker
Biography:

Tobias I Ndubuisi Ezejiofor obtained a BSc degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences (Rivers State University of Science & Technology, Port Harcourt), MSc Applied Biochemistry (Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka), and PhD Environmental Health Biology (Federal University of Technology, Owerri(FUTO), Nigeria. He is licensed by Environmental Health Officers Registration and Medical Laboratory Science Councils of Nigeria. A member of many professional associations and learned societies, he is a Fellow of the College of Biomedical Engineering and Technology (FCBET), Nigeria. He is a senior Lecturer and heads the Occupational and Environmental Toxicology Research laboratory of the Department of Biotechnology, FUTO, Nigeria. He has published over 25 papers in reputed journals, and serving as reviewer to many such international journals. He had given several conference papers locally and internationally.

Abstract:

Background: Exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers. This informed this study aimed at investigating the haematological effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry in Nigeria. Methodology: Haematological indices were investigated in whole blood, using routine laboratory methods. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that in oil workers, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) ranged 1-100 (Mean:10.94±11.82mm/h) in oil workers, against 1-36(Mean:6.6±7.81mm/h) in non-oil workers (P<0.05); hemoglobin (Hb): 7.60-21.10(13.19±1.31g/dl) vs. 9.10-14.90(13.01±1.54g/dl) (P>0.05); Parked Cell Volume (PCV): 25.00-58.00 (43.31±4.09%) vs. 30-49(42.70±5.01%) (P>0.05); Platelets: 75.00x109/L - 430.00x109/L(232.41±63.18 x109/L) vs. 141.00 x109/L - 382.00 x109/L (239.23±57.30 x109/L) (P>0.05); White Blood Cell (WBC): 3.20 x109/L - 86.00 x109/L(7.07±6.61 x109/L) vs. 4.9 x109/L - 11.00 x109/L(7.36±1.64 x109/L) (P>0.05). For the WBC differentials, the values were: lymphocytes: 18.00x109/L - 75.00 x109/L (52.28±9.25x109/L) vs. 25.00 x109/L - 57.00 x109/L (41.60±10.16x109/L) (P<0.01); and granulocytes: 25.00x109/L - 82.00x109/L (47.72±9.24x109/L) vs. 43 x109/L -75 x109/L (58.40±10.16 x109/L(P<0.01). Results showed that mean values were still within parametric reference ranges. However, Compared to the controls, some variations were observed in the oil workers: while granulocytes decreased significantly (P<0.01), significant increases occurred in ESR (P<0.05) and lymphocytes (P<0.01) respectively- indicating a possibility of functional alteration following haematopoietic toxicity in the oil workers. Findings suggest petroleum refining and distribution industry as being furnished with potentially haematotoxic substances, and haematopoietic toxicity as part of potential health effects of exposures in this industry in Nigeria. Though gender classification showed no appreciable impact, age grouping revealed that potential health effects indicated by the observed variations are likely to rear up from age 40 yrs and above. That exposure classification showed no dose-dependent distribution pattern meant that changes observed in age grouping (though insignificant), is simply an effect mediated by aging, implying that an aging worker is more amenable to exposure effects, thus creating a need for frequent environmental and biological monitoring for a safer and healthier workplace and workforce.

Masoumeh Ghiasvand

Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Title: Occupational exposure to lead and risk of high frequencies hearing loss in adults

Time : 17:50-18:10

Speaker
Biography:

Masoumeh Ghiasvand completed her medical doctor diploma at the age of 27 years from Iran University of Medical Sciences and Occupational Medicine specialty from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. She was vice director for treatment in Raso0l-e-Akram hospital until 3 months ago. She has published 7 papers in international journals and she is working with international journal of MJIR as a reviewer. She has received travel fellowship award from IUTOX 2012(8CTDC).

Abstract:

Objectives: Some studies have reported that adults with occupational lead exposure can exhibit ototoxicity. Aim was to evaluate the effect of lead exposure on hearing frequencies in acid- battery manufacturing workers in Tehran. Methods: This study was conducted in acid- battery manufacturing factory, and 609 male workers were recruited from all over the factory. Association between blood lead level and hearing frequencies were measured. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was used for comparing the proportion of risk variables. Results: The total of 609 battery manufacturing male workers were consisting of 285(46.8%) workers with blood lead level (BLL) <40 μg/dl and 324 (53.2%) workers with BLL ≥40 μg/dl. High frequency (3, 4, 6, 8 Khz) hearing loss at hearing threshold above 25 dB in either ear was significantly more prevalent in workers with blood lead level ≥40 μg/dl (Adjusted Odds ratio=2.66, 95%CI: 1.86 - 3.80, P<0.001 and Adjusted Odds ratio=1.60, 95%CI: 1.13-2.27, P<0.008 for age and work duration respectively). Mean noise exposure level was 84.0 dBALeq. Conclusion health surveillance program for lead exposed workers should include of hearing examination by audiometry even if employees whose exposure to noise is less than of TWA of 85 dB, and we suggest hearing frequencies that measure by pure tone audiometry could be a reliable marker of lead ototoxicity.

  • Young Researchers Forum
Location: Versailles - B
Speaker
Biography:

Deniz Özkan Vardar has completed his bachelor’s and master degree at Gazi University. She is PhD student in Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University. Her academic work is focused onnanotoxicology especially nanogenotoxicology. She has published 2 papers about genotoxicity. She has worked for more than 5 years in the Departments of Health Programs,Hitit University.

Abstract:

Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals (~2–100 nm) with unique optical and electrical properties currently applied in biomedical imaging and electronics industries. One of the most valuable properties of QDs is their fluorescence spectrum, which renders them optimal fluorophores for biomedical imaging. The information about their effects in the cellular environment and their cytotoxic effects are still lacking. So the aim of this study was to assess and compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of silver sulfide quantum dots coated with 2-mercaptopropionic acid and Meso-2,3-dimercapto succinic acid. For this purpose Chinese Hamster Lung Fibroblast cell lines (V79) were treated with Ag2S-(2-mercaptopropionic acid) and Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid) quantum dots in the concentration range of 5-2000 μg/mL for 24 h. Cellular responses and their effects were characterized. The assays used are based on different modes of detection like MTT metabolism and neutral red uptake. Neutral red (3-amino-m-dimethylamino-2-methyl-phenazine hydrochloride) has been used previously for the identification of vital cells in cultures. This assay quantifies the number of viable, uninjured cells after their exposure to toxicants; it is based on the uptake and subsequent lysosomal accumulation of the supravital dye, neutral red. Another parameter used as the basis for colorimetric assays is the metabolic activity of viable cells. Tetrazolium salts are reduced only by metabolically active cells. Thus, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) can be reduced to a blue colored formazan. Quantum dots showed different cytotoxicity profile in a dose manner in both tests.

Speaker
Biography:

SaviourUfot completed his B.Sc. degree in Biochemistry at the age of 22 from University of Calabar, and M.Sc. in Pharmacology at 24 years from University of Ibadan, all in Nigeria. He served as a Lecturer in University of Ilorin, Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. He is presently working on his Ph.D research work in Toxicology in Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Nigeria. He is currently serving as Health, Safety and Environment Specialist with Total Exploration and Production Nigeria Limited. He has published over 12 papers in reputable journals and has attended many scientific seminars and conferences.

Abstract:

Litter size, tail length, birth weight, and serum sex hormonal profile of rats orally exposed to crude oil was assessed in this study. The results of this study showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in litter size delivered by rats treated with crude oil (4.3±1.2), compared to the litter size delivered by rats in the control group (9.0±1.5). The mean tail length of the litters delivered by rats treated with crude oil, after one week of delivery (1.4±0.1cm), and sixth week of delivery (9.2±2.1cm), were not significantly (p>0.05) different from the mean tail length of the litters delivered by rats in the control group, after one week of delivery (1.8±0.2cm), and sixth week of delivery (9.2±1.8cm). Also, the mean total body weight of the litters delivered by rats treated with crude oil, after one week of delivery (4.7±1.1g) was insignificantly lower, compared to the mean total body weight of the litters delivered by rats in the control group (6.9±1.8g). However, the mean total body weight of the litters in the group treated with crude oil, after the sixth week of delivery (34.1±5.2g), was significantly (p<0.05) lower, compared to the litters from rats in the control group (61.3±8.5g). The percentage growth rate of the litters delivered by rats treated with crude oil, over six weeks of weaning (70.0±10.2%), was also significantly lower (p<0.05), compared to the percentage growth rate of the litters delivered by control rats, over six weeks of weaning (129.5±15.4%) The levels of serum FSH, LH, and progesterone also decreased significantly (p<0.05), from 5.4±1.8, 3.0±1.1 and 3.4±1.4 ng/ml in the control group to 1.9±0.4, 1.8±0.5and 1.8±0.3ng/ml in the treated group. Reproductive toxicity is hereby reported to be associated with oral exposure to crude oil.

Speaker
Biography:

Uduak O Luke completed her Bachelor’s degree in Biochemistry at the age of 25 from University of Uyo and Master of Science degree in Clinical Biochemistry at 29 years from University of Calabar, Nigeria. She is a Ph.D research candidate in Environmental / Biochemical Toxicology in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar. She's currently working at the Institute of Health Research and Development, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital Uyo, Nigeria as a Research Officer. She is a certified Oracle Database Administrator. She has published over 10 papers in reputable journals.

Abstract:

Comparative air quality of petroleum depots and refueling stations was assessed in this study. Noise level, relative humidity, wind speed, temperature, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur VI oxide were measured to assess the air quality of these environments. The volatile organic compounds, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur VI oxide levels in the air were measured using aeroqual environmental monitor series 300, while Extech sound level meter (407730) for the noise level and Extech meteorological meter (45170) was used to measure the wind speed, temperature and humidity. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the noise level, relative humidity and volatile organic compounds recorded within the two petroleum polluted sites. The levels of ammonia and methane recorded for the petroleum depot were significantly (p<0.05) higher, compared with the levels recorded for the refueling stations. It was also observed that hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur VI oxide levels recorded at the refueling stations were significantly (p<0.05) higher, compared with the levels recorded for petroleum depot. However, the levels of these indices were significantly higher, compared with the environmental standard permissible limits. It may therefore be concluded that petroleum depots and refueling stations atmospheric environments harbor chemical substances that can contaminate the air quality, and constitute environmental pollution in these areas.

Rajlaxmi Basu

Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, India

Title: Genotoxic effects of exposure to sewage water in conservancy workers as assessed by comet test

Time : 18:40-18:50

Speaker
Biography:

Rajlaxmi Basu aged 27, is a 2nd year PhD student enrolled in the Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India and is carrying out her research work occupational health hazards in different working populations with special reference to toxicology and human genetics at Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical College, Kolkata, India. She has two publications in international journals of repute and three manuscripts prepared from her research work are under review in international journals.

Abstract:

Awareness of sewage workers to occupational exposure is growing very slowly in many developing countries due to which they often tend to work without proper protective clothing, resulting in a number of health problems. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are present in sewage water and workers are exposed to these metals by unprotected handling during work. These heavy metals exposure are responsible for DNA damage and lowering of blood total iron (Fe) concentration. The total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), Pb and Cd were estimated in sewage water. The whole blood Zn and Fe concentration (estimated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence), Pd and Cd (estimated by GF AAS) were also estimated. Genotoxicity especially DNA damage was studied by comet assay. It was observed that there are significant differences (p<0.05) of lead and cadmium concentration in blood for exposed population i.e., sewage workers (according to through interview and observation they are non- addicted) when compared with control population (non-sewage workers). The DNA damage was also observed to be significantly (p<0.001) higher in exposed groups but their blood iron concentration was significantly lower, which may be the reason for their tendency for retention of blood cadmium and make them more susceptible. Besides, they show a highly significant depletion (p<0.001) in Selenium (Se) concentration (estimated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) in their whole blood and this may be one of the causes for their lowered antioxidant level and responsible for premature ageing and other health complication. The higher level of DNA damage (estimated by Single Cell Gel electrophoresis) is also dependent on exposure time and blood heavy metal concentration. The present study also indicates aged workers are rich in blood zinc concentration, which is a suitable indicator as this essential trace element zinc acts as an antidote for the toxic element cadmium. The present study helps to assess the health hazards of sewage workers and more susceptible groups in young compared to aged groups and as per questionnaire and estimation, the young groups have lower blood zinc level as well as different food habits, etc. that may cause DNA damage.

Speaker
Biography:

Chinwe Christy Isitua is a Scientist who completed her PhD in 2013 from University of Benin, Nigeria and she is currently doing her Postdoctoral studies in Universidad Tecnica de Machala Ecuador with the Emblematic Prometeo Project Fellowship of the Secretariat of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation (SENESCYT) Ecuador.

Abstract:

Plant based products had primarily served from time immemorial as the most important and indispensable source of food. Plant drugs popularly known as herbal remedies are relied upon for the treatment of all sorts of diseases in most communities in developing countries. The effect of the dietary exposure of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf on insulin metabolism was carried out with a view to provide an insight into physiological events that may have bearings on diabetes. Age twelve – matched healthy adult Chinchilla rabbits (2.0 ± 0.5 kg BW) were divided into three equal groups (two treatment and one control groups). The treatment groups were given 2.5 mL and 5.0 mL of aqueous extract of the leaves of M. oleifera by oral intubation, while the control group received 5.0 mL of the vehicle of extraction (sterile distilled water) and examined every 30 days period for 90 days. The quantitative determination of insulin in serum was carried out using DRG Insulin Enzyme Immunoassay kit (DRG Insulin ELISA EIA - 2935). Results showed significant increases in blood insulin level of test rabbits in all the periods examined when compared with the control and this increase was concentration-and time-dependent. This work therefore demonstrates the anti-diabetic action of M. oleifera leaf which has been shown to have phytochemicals that can stimulate insulin release in animals.

Break: 18:30-19:30 Cocktails Sponsored by Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology @ Athens